The PRECEDE–PROCEED model as a tool in Public Health screening: a systematic review
The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the scientific literature concerning the use of the Precede-Proceed model (PPM) applied to educational programs and health screenings contexts.
The search process was based on a selection of publications listed in Medline and Scopus. The keywords used were “Precede-Proceed” AND (“screening” OR “educational programs”). Studies included in the systematic review were subdivided into those applying the model in a screening context, and those applying it within educational programs.
Twenty-seven studies were retrieved, mostly performed in the USA and, generally, the promoting center was the University. In the context of cancer screening, the PPM model was most of all applied to Mammography Screening (5 of 13 studies in cancer screening), and Cervical Cancer Screening (5 of 13). Another three studies within the cancer field investigated Menopause-Inducing Cancer Treatments, Oral cancer prevention, and cancer screening in general. In the remaining studies, the model was applied in various screening areas, particularly chronic and degenerative diseases. There were many different study designs, most of which cross-sectional (8), though several RTCs (8) and focus groups (5) were also found. For the cross-sectional studies the methodological quality varied between 3/10 and 9/10, whilst for the RCTs it ranged from 2/5 to 3/5.
The PPM provides an excellent framework for health intervention programs especially in screening contexts, and could improve the understanding of the relationship between variables such as knowledge and screening. Given the complexity of a behavioral change process, certain important predisposing factors could be measured in future studies, and during health intervention planning