A Proposal for Clinical Biomarkers in Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is increasingly widespread disease, characterized by non-specific and recurring symptoms from various organs associated with exposure to common chemicals, even if inhaled at low concentrations, usually harmless for normal people.
MCS is not yet well recognized from common point of view and for this reason affected patients risk marginalization and their symptoms are often trivialized. It is actually a devastating chronic disease that affects not only the patients in the daily routine but partly conditions their survival.
Despite more than 50 years of research, the action mechanisms of MCS is still undefined. In this study we examine the theories about the etiopathogenesis of multiple chemical sensitivity that include genetic susceptibility factors, immunological factors, neurological factors and psychiatric factors. Since no specific diagnostic markers are currently available for the MCS, the diagnosis can only be supposed on the basis symptomatic criteria and patient’s medical history. However new biochemical markers and diagnostic imaging techniques have emerged, useful to postulate at least the clinical-diagnostic hypothesis of MCS and in this paper we discuss a list of biomarkers studied for the diagnosis of MCS, based on the available scientific literature.
At last but not least, we propose four-levels MCS tests that could help the clinician in the diagnosis of the pathology both through the use of quantifiable serological parameters, both through diagnostic tools, genetic testing and through clinical observation of symptoms