A rare case of Spinal Epidural Abscess following mesotherapy: a challenging diagnosis and the importance of clinical risk management. Considerations concerning uncommon risk factor for development of Spinal Epidural Abscess and its prevention
Spinal Epidural Abscess (SEA) is a rare pyogenic infection localized between dura mater and vertebral periostium. The development of SEA is associated with the presence of medical co-morbidities and risk factors that facilitate bacterial dissemination. It is possible distinguish two type of SEA: primary SEA due to pathogen hematogenous dissemination and secondary SEA resulting from direct inoculation of pathogen. This entity, very uncommon, shows a prevalence peak between the 5th and the 7th decade of life with predominance in males.
The case is a 44 years old Caucasian man with chronic low back pain, treated with physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory drugs. Following an episode of acute severe exacerbation of pain, the patient underwent four session of dorsal and lumbo-sacral area mesotherapy. One month after the last session, the patient experienced acute sever lumbar pain, radiated to left lower limb and accompanied by fever and vomiting. During hospitalization, elevated levels of white blood cells and C Reactive Protein (CRP) were found. Moreover, a vertebral magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of intramedullary lesion. Furthermore, methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus was isolated from three blood cultures and antibiotic therapy was performed.
In our case the patient had the typical SEA onset, without any specific risk factors excepting the execution of four session of mesotherapy.
Aim of this study is to explain risk factors for the SEA development and to clarify how act as preventive measure, because also acupuncture can promote bacterial infection.